|Responsible unit:||Department of Geosciences, Environment and Spatial Plannings|
|Course/CS Responsible:||First Degree in Environmental Sciences and Technology|
|Acronym||No. of Students||Study Plan||Curricular Years||Credits UCN||Credits ECTS||Contact hours||Total Time|
|L:CTA||53||Plano estudos a partir do ano letivo 2016/17||2||-||6||56||162|
|Bruno Renato Valério Valentim|
|Manuel António Salgueiro da Silva|
|Theoretical and practical :||2,00|
|Bruno Renato Valério Valentim||0,60|
|Manuel António Salgueiro da Silva||1,40|
|Theoretical and practical||Totals||1||2,00|
|Bruno Renato Valério Valentim||1,20|
|Manuel António Salgueiro da Silva||0,80|
After completion of the course the student is expected to:
- understand the physical principles associated with the production, conversion, conservation and transfer of energy;
- understand the physical aspects underlying Solar Thermal, Solar Photovoltaic, Wind and Geothermal renewable energies, and related technologies;
- understand the operation of heat engines, refrigerators and heat pumps;
- understand the concepts of thermal efficiency and coefficient of performance;
- understand the process of heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation;
- understand the concepts of thermal resistance and equivalent thermal resistance;
- analyze and solve problems in the field of Physics of Energy and Environment;
- quantitatively analyze geothermal processes at different scales and enthalpy levels for power generation;
- to recognize the different energy sources and to be able of searching key global energy statistics;
- to explain ao fossil fuels formed, reognize combustion and mitigation technologies, and the related envirionmental impact;
- to recognize that the hidrogen production is closely related with the fossil fuels and their markets and infrastructures;
- identify alternative geological energy resources to fossil fuels;
MODULE I – ENERGY, PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES AND APPLICATIONS
1. Energy in the Universe.
Principle of conservation of energy.
Forms of energy and their applications
2. Renewable Energies.
3. Heat transfer.
Thermal conduction. Convection. Thermal radiation.
General characteristics of thermal radiation emitted by a body.
Thermal resistance of conduction, convection and radiation.
Interior heating and insulation.
4. Conversion of heat into work.
Thermal efficiency. Thermal machines.
Heat pump and refrigerator. Coefficient of performance.
5. Solar energy.
Solar spectrum and solar constant.
Effect of the tilt of Earth rotation axis on annual insolation variations.
Calculation of solar insolation versus time and latitude.
Energy transport between the tropics and the poles.
Solar thermal energy.
Solar Collectors: constitution, radiative selectivity, heat power captured and extracted. Efficiency of a solar collector.
General principle of thermal use of solar energy.
Thermosyphon. Forced convection systems.
Integrated residential installation.
The solar pond.
Conversion of solar thermal energy into electric energy.
6. Wind energy.
Mechanical power of the wind.
Resistance force of a turbine.
Mechanical power extracted by a turbine.
Coefficient of performance and Betz limit.
Power curve of a wind turbine and dependence factors.
Effect of altitude and orography.
Constitution of a wind turbine.
Physical principle of operation of a photovoltaic cell.
Characteristic curve and point of maximum power.
Modules and photovoltaic panels. Photovoltaic efficiency.
MODULE II - GEOLOGICAL ENERGY RESOURCES
2.1 Terminology of energy sources and statistics on energy and associated emissions.
2.2 Fossil fuels (coal, oil and natural gas)
2.2.1 The formation of fossil fuels
2.2.2 Use of coal, oil and natural gas.
18.104.22.168 Blast furnaces, industrial and domestic heating, electricity generation.
22.214.171.124 Coal combustion technologies (classic and HELE) and mitigation of environmental impact resulting from combustion.
2.2.3 Environmental impact of fossil fuels on exploration, transport, transformation and use (hydrocarbons, CO, NOx, SOx, Tar, PM).
2.2.4 By-products of coal combustion (slag, ash and gypsum) and oil refining (paraffins, sulfur and tar)
2.3 Hydrogen production from fossil fuels
2.4 Alternative geological energy resources to fossil fuels
2.4.1 Geothermal alternative
Geothermal system and the main types of geothermal resources. Geothermal fields. High and low enthalpy geothermal and its characteristics. Techniques for exploiting geothermal resources and usage constraints.
2.4.2 Nuclear alternative
126.96.36.199 Uranium and its applications. Uranium exploration in Portugal.
188.8.131.52 Environmental impact of nuclear energy: in exploration and use (spent fuel and accidents)
2.4.4 A World with high-tech renewable energy and batteries
184.108.40.206 Origin of minerals and elements that go into the composition of the wind turbines (steel structures and supermagnets), solar panels, batteries (Si, REE, CF-Al-PS binders, bituminous masses and petroleum coke, graphite, Li, Pb, Ni, Co).
220.127.116.11 Environmental impact and recycling.
Lectures and theoretical-practical classes.
The classes will be online. The didactic content, including resolutions of problems of theoretical-practical classes and tests and exams of previous years, will be made available in Moodle e-learning platform.
Discussion forum in Moodle e-learning platform to resolve doubts.
Presentation and discussion of the contents using case studies. Theoretical lectures will use Powerpoint presentations (including the analysis and discussion of graphs, diagrams, images, photographs and field photos). For the practical component, hand samples of carbonaceous rocks will be used, and also key stats reports of the IEA and DGEG.Whenever possible, classes will be enriched with lectures by invited experts, webinars, field trips, and study visits to laboratories and industrial units for processing and / or conversion.
|Frequência das aulas||56,00|