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Eletromagnetism I

Code: FIS1004     Acronym: FIS1004     Level: 100

Classification Keyword

Instance: 2018/2019 - 2S Ícone do Moodle

Active? Yes
Responsible unit: Department of Physics and Astronomy
Course/CS Responsible: First Degree in Physics

Cycles of Study/Courses

Acronym No. of Students Study Plan Curricular Years Credits UCN Credits ECTS Contact hours Total Time
L:B 0 Official Study Plan 3 - 6 56 162
L:CC 0 Plano de estudos a partir de 2014 2 - 6 56 162
L:F 61 Official Study Plan 1 - 6 56 162
L:G 1 study plan from 2017/18 2 - 6 56 162
L:M 0 Official Study Plan 2 - 6 56 162
L:Q 6 study plan from 2016/17 3 - 6 56 162
MI:EF 82 study plan from 2017/18 1 - 6 56 162

Teaching Staff - Responsibilities

Teacher Responsibility
Carla Susana Santana Carmelo Rosa

Teaching - Hours

Theoretical classes: 2,00
Theoretical and practical : 2,00
Type Teacher Classes Hour
Theoretical classes Totals 1 2,00
Carla Susana Santana Carmelo Rosa 2,00
Theoretical and practical Totals 4 8,00
Carla Susana Santana Carmelo Rosa 4,00
João José de Faria Graça Afonso Lima 4,00
Mais informaçõesLast updated on 2019-02-25.

Fields changed: Calculation formula of final grade

Teaching language



  • Learn the basics of Electromagnetism

  • Derive and present the laws and methods of Electromagnetism under a phenomenological perspective

  • Establish links and parallels between Electromagnetism and Mechanics, using concepts such as force and energy

  • Emphasize the relevance of the concept of field in the formulation of the laws of Electromagnetism, as an entity responsible for the mediation of physical interactions

  • Apply, in the context of Electromagnetism, the concepts and methods of Vector Analysis and Integral Calculus in space

  • Present and describe relevant applications of Electromagnetism in Science and Technology

Learning outcomes and competences

Ability to solve basic physical situations envolving topics of lectricity, magnetism and electromagnetism, of solving basic problems in these topics, and establish links to simple experimental situations.

Working method



1. Introduction
2. Electrostatics in vacuum Electrisation, charges and conservation of electrical charge; conductors, insulators and semiconductors. Coulomb force and linear superposition. Electric field of point charge. Electric field lines. Electric dipole. Movement of electrically charged particles in electric fields. Action of electric field on a dipole. Continuous distributions of electric charge, density of charge; examples of electric fields created by continuous charge distributions. The -2 exponent of Coulomb’s law. Gauss’ law of the electric field in integral form; application examples. Electric field on a charged surface. Conductors in electrostatic equilibrium.
3. Electric potential and potential energy Electric energy and field potential of a point charge. Conservative behaviour of the electrostatic field; the field-potential relationship. Potential of a system of point charges and of continuous charge distributions; electric dipole potential; examples. Constant potential surfaces and field lines. Electric potential energy of a system of point charges.
4. Capacity, capacitors and dielectrics System of charged conductors and the concept of capacity; capacity calculation examples. Dielectric materials and polarization. Dielectric in a parallel plates capacitor; polarization charge densities. Electric field inside and outside a dielectric, electric susceptibility. Integral form of Gauss’ law with dielectrics. Charge storage in a parallel plates’ capacitor, in vacuum and with a dielectric. Energy density of the electric field in vacuum and in a dielectric. Relative displacement between the parallel plates of a capacitor, charged and isolated or connected to the voltage source; electrostatic pressure. Capacitors in series and parallel associations.
5. Stationary electric current Charge carriers, electric current intensity, current density. Conduction in metals; electrical conductivity of metals. Ohm’s law. Electric resistance; examples. Joule’s law. Continuity equation of the electric charge. Electromotive force of a generator; internal resistance of non-ideal generator. Resistors in series and parallel associations. Constant current circuits. Kirchhoff’s laws; examples. RC circuit. Charge and discharge of a capacitor; energy supplied by the source, energy dissipated in the resistor, and electric energy in the capacitor. Ammeter and voltmeter.
6. Magnetostatic field in vacuum, magnetic force Magnetic force on a moving point charge, and on an electric current element. Movement of charged particles in static electric and magnetic fields; examples. Force and force moment of magnetic fields on current loops; magnetic moment and magnetic dipole. d’Arsonval’s galvanometer.
7. Stationary electric current and magnetic field in vacuum Magnetic field of a moving point charge; magnetic force between moving charges. Magnetic field of an electric current distribution; Biot and Savart’s law; examples; dipole field. Axial field of a solenoid. The definition of ampère (SI). Integral form of magnetic Gauss’ law; magnetic field lines. Integral form of Ampère’s law; examples.
8. Magnetic induction Faraday’s law, integral form. Electromotive force due to time variable fields and due to displacement in space. Lenz’s law. Electromotive force and induced current: examples. Operation of generator and motor. Concepts of self- and mutual inductance. RL circuit. Magnetic energy; magnetic energy density. Non-stationary fields, magnetic induction and electric induction; charge conservation and displacement current. Maxwell’s equations of non-stationary fields in vacuum.
9. Magnetism in the matter Magnetization, and magnetization current densities. Magnetic susceptibility. Paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, and diamagnetism.

Mandatory literature

P. A. Tipler; Physics for scientists and engineers, Worth Publishers, 1991

Complementary Bibliography

M Alonso and E. J. Finn; Physics, Addison-Wesley, 1996
R. P. Feynman, R. B. Leighton, M. Sands; The Feynmam Lectures on Physics, Addison-Wesley, 1964
R. Blum, D. E. Roller; Physics, 2nd Vol., Holden-Day, 1982
J. R. Reitz, F. J. Milford, R. W. Christy; Foundations of Electromagnetic Theory, Addison-Wesley, 1993

Teaching methods and learning activities

Lectures used to present and discuss the referred topics, using examples to help understanding concepts, laws and calculation techniques. Problem classes used to solve problems and exercises. 


Physical sciences > Physics > Electromagnetism

Evaluation Type

Distributed evaluation with final exam

Assessment Components

designation Weight (%)
Teste 75,00
Trabalho escrito 25,00
Total: 100,00

Amount of time allocated to each course unit

designation Time (hours)
Estudo autónomo 133,50
Frequência das aulas 69,00
Total: 202,50

Eligibility for exams

  1. Presense in Problem solving lectures (TP). There will  be a presence record. Students exceding the limit of absences  (1/4 of given TP lectures) will be excluded from "frequencia".

  2. Delivering class's problems. The non delivery of 2/3 of the problems implies lack of "frequência".


Those students that have obtained "frequência" in the scholar year of  2017/18 may request TP classes dismiss. The request should be made until the 16 of february, by e-mail (ccrosa@fc.up.pt).

If given, the student will keep the classification given in the group work of 2017/18. Nevertheless,  students must attend the two envisaged tests.

In  "época de recurso", the general rules will apply .

Important: Students may swap TP class during the first week of the period,  provided the agreement of both the lecturers from the  “departing class ” and the  “arrival class”.

Calculation formula of final grade

Final Mark=(NG+2xAi)*0.25+NTI*0.30+NTF*0.45

First examination-test : april, 3, 08:30

Classification improvement

Improvement of the final grade (at all exam periods) will respect only to the part corresponding to the final examination paper.

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