The recent focus on the cystic fibrosis (CF) complex microbiome has led to the recognition that the microbes can interact between them and with the host immune system, affecting the disease progression and treatment routes. Although the main focus remains on the interactions between traditional pathogens, growing evidence supports the contribution and the role of emergent species. Understanding the mechanisms and the biological effects involved in polymicrobial interactions may be the key to improve effective therapies and also to define new strategies for disease control. This review focuses on the interactions between microbe¿microbe and host¿microbe, from an ecological point of view, discussing their impact on CF disease progression. There are increasing indications that these interactions impact the success of antimicrobial therapy. Consequently, a new approach where therapy is personalized to patients by taking into account their individual CF microbiome is suggested. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
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