In the search for robust constitutive models suitable for reproducing the performance of bridge piers during a seismic event, this paper details the simulation of the cyclic responses of four rectangular hollow section R/C bridge piers. These four R/C bridge piers were built at scale 1/2.5 and tested experimentally. Both tall and short piers are considered, covering situations where bending or shear are of relevance. Furthermore, the four piers were reinforced according to rather different design strategies: (i) the first is a 30-year-old bridge designed without allowance to the seismic action, and (ii) the second is a bridge fulfilling the EC8 provisions. The detailed constitutive model that provides the numerical predictions includes two submodels: one with two scalar damage variables, reproducing the tensile and compressive degradations of concrete, and the other is based on the Giuffre- Menegotto- Pinto formulation, simulating the cyclic behaviour of the reinforcement. The Damage Mechanics submodel is implemented at the Gauss points of the finite elements that discretize the concrete, whereas the steel submodel is implemented on the 2-noded truss elements adopted for the rebars. A comparison between the numerical and the experimental results is discussed in detail in this paper.
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