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Code: MA226     Acronym: GEN

Classification Keyword
OFICIAL General and Aquatic Biology

Instance: 2018/2019 - 4T (of 23-04-2019 to 14-06-2019)

Active? Yes
Responsible unit: Microscopy
Course/CS Responsible: First Cycle Degree (BSc) in Aquatic Sciences

Cycles of Study/Courses

Acronym No. of Students Study Plan Curricular Years Credits UCN Credits ECTS Contact hours Total Time
LCMA 34 Oficial Plan 2018 2 - 5 49 135

Teaching Staff - Responsibilities

Teacher Responsibility
Carolina Luísa Cardoso Lemos

Teaching - Hours

Theoretical classes: 3,00
Laboratory Practice: 4,00
Type Teacher Classes Hour
Theoretical classes Totals 1 3,00
Carolina Luísa Cardoso Lemos 1,71
Maria Beatriz Beça Gonçalves Porto e Vasconcelos 1,28
Laboratory Practice Totals 2 8,00
Maria Beatriz Beça Gonçalves Porto e Vasconcelos 3,42
Carolina Luísa Cardoso Lemos 2,28
Alda Maria Botelho Correia de Sousa 2,28

Teaching language

Suitable for English-speaking students


Provide the students with knowledge in several areas of genetics and its application in basic research - characterization of species-evolution studies - and applied research - environmental genotoxicity, conservation of species and animal breeding and improvement. The curricular unity comprises of two parts: Formal and Population Genetics and Cytogenetics.

Learning outcomes and competences

The syllabus of this discipline is quite comprehensive, what is in agreement with the aim of understanding the basic concepts of Genetics and the main strategies of the discpline. The practical exercices are effective tools for acquiring the proposed skills. It is expected for the sudents to get basic knowledge in all proposed aims, giving competence to future studies in advanced genetics.

The teaching methodologies will have as main purpose  to acquaint students with the main concepts and problems in Genetics. Practical sessions and exercises will favour critical analysis in different contexts.

The assessment of knowledge and skills will be achieved by combining continous evaluation will enable us to understand whether the student is capable  of applying acquires knowledge to a different context, besides the final exam.

Working method



Mendelism (revision): independent segregation. Genetic linkage. Dihybrid and test crossing. Mapping based on recombination fraction. Population Genetics: phenotypic and genotypic variability. Genotype and allele frequencies. Hardy and Weinberg equilibrium for  codominant locus and multiple alleles. Complete dominance. Alteration of gene frequencies: mutation and migration. Small populations and genetic drift. Selection against  recessives/dominants, in favor of heterozygotes. Situation of genetic equilibrium: heterosis, balance between mutation/selection.

Introduction to cytogenetics; chromosomes in the cell cycle, morphology of chromosomes, karyotyping, structure and function of chromatin and chromosomes; numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations, causes and consequences; the sex chromosomes, sexual differentiation; mutations, biomarkers, application of cytogenetics to aquatic organisms: environmental genotoxicity , conservation of species and animal breeding and improvement.

Mandatory literature

Griffiths Anthony J. F. 070; An introduction to genetic analysis. ISBN: 978-0-7167-6887-6
Klug William S.; Essentials of genetics. ISBN: 0-13-129029-0
Pisano E 340; Fish cytogenetics. ISBN: 978-1-57808-330-5
Azevedo Carlos 340; Biologia celular e molecular. ISBN: 972-757-354-1
Lacadena Juan-Ramón; Citogenética. ISBN: 84-89365-58-X

Teaching methods and learning activities

Theoretical and practical classes (exercises, computer simulations, practical work). Use of audiovisual methods either in theoretical or practical classes.


Natural sciences > Biological sciences > Biology > Genetics
Natural sciences > Biological sciences > Biology > Population biology

Evaluation Type

Evaluation with final exam

Assessment Components

Designation Weight (%)
Exame 100,00
Total: 100,00

Amount of time allocated to each course unit

Designation Time (hours)
Estudo autónomo 86,00
Frequência das aulas 49,00
Total: 135,00

Eligibility for exams

3/4 of the classes

Calculation formula of final grade

Final Exam= 100%
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