|OFICIAL||Biophysics and Biochemistry|
|Responsible unit:||Molecular Biology|
|Course/CS Responsible:||First Cycle Degree (BSc) in Aquatic Sciences|
|Acronym||No. of Students||Study Plan||Curricular Years||Credits UCN||Credits ECTS||Contact hours||Total Time|
|LCMA||43||Oficial Plan 2018||2||-||5||49||135|
|Vitor Manuel Vieira da Costa|
|Luis Miguel Gales Pereira Pinto|
|Theoretical and practical :||1,00|
|Vitor Manuel Vieira da Costa||0,85|
|Jorge Eduardo da Silva Azevedo||0,85|
|Luis Miguel Gales Pereira Pinto||1,29|
|Theoretical and practical||Totals||1||1,00|
|Vitor Manuel Vieira da Costa||0,28|
|Luis Miguel Gales Pereira Pinto||0,42|
|Jorge Eduardo da Silva Azevedo||0,28|
|Vitor Manuel Vieira da Costa||1,71|
|Marta Vaz Mendes||1,71|
|Elodie Murias Lopes||2,57|
The program of Biophysics and Biochemistry aims to prepare students for the understanding of fundamental principles of Physics and its applications in Biology, as well of intermediate metabolism and regulatory mechanisms of metabolic pathways. It is highlighted the importance of signal transduction pathways used by cells to receive, process, amplify and integrate diverse extracellular signals. The student uses basic knowledge to discuss dysfunctions associated with traumas and specific conditions.
This curricular unit also aims at giving students the theoretical and practical knowledge required for the correct utilization of a group of experimental techniques based on physical principles and used for the biochemical characterization of cells, organelles, proteins and metabolites.
The student should be able to understand the molecular mechanisms of life in cells. Emphasis will be given to the role of proteins and macromolecules in biochemical processes and to its biophysical characterization either by structure-function and kinetic studies.
Protein structure – Aminoacids; primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure.
Protein function – Enzymes, function and classification, kinetics and mechanisms of inhibition. Transport proteins.
Transmembrane proteins – sodium channels, potassium channels, and transmission of electric impulses. ATP synthase, electrochemical gradient, energy conversion efficiency. Transport proteins by formation of a complex. Several examples.
Fibrous proteins with structural functions.
Carbohydrate metabolism – Glycolysis and lactic acid fermentation. Glycogen metabolism and gluconeogenesis. The pentose-phosphate pathway. Regulation of carbohydrate metabolism. Cellular signalling mechanisms by insulin, glucagon and epinephrine. Metabolic adaptations to starvation.
Bioenergetics – the complex pyruvate dehydrogenase and the Krebs cycle. Regulation of the Krebs cycle. Amphibolic nature of the Krebs cycle.
Oxidative stress - Reactive oxygen species, molecular damages and antioxidant defences.
Lipid metabolism – Digestion and absorption of lipids. Lipolysis and beta-oxidation of fatty acids. Synthesis and energetic role of ketone bodies. Synthesis of fatty acids. Biosynthesis of cholesterol. Lipoproteins. Integration and regulation of lipid metabolism.
Aminoacid metabolism – Aminotransferases and glutamate dehydrogenase. Biosynthesis of non-essential aminoacids. Catabolism of aminoacids and the urea cycle. Ammonia toxicity. Conversion of aminoacids to specialized products – HEME, melanine, hormones, neurotransmitters, nitric oxide and nucleotides.
1. Protein crystallization
2. Visualization of structural models of macromolecules.
3. Techniques of subcellular fractionation: homogenisation of tissues and cells; differential centrifugation.
4. Protein analysis by electrophoresis.
5. Metabolite analysis and determination of enzymatic activities.
Theoretical classes consist on the presentation of the program content with discussion and resolution of problems/exercises.
In practical classes, students working in groups of two perform the laboratorial work and present and discuss the results obtained. The theoretical bases of the methodologies used are presented by the tutor before the execution of the experiments.
|Frequência das aulas||49,00|
According to the rules of the University of Porto: presence in 3/4 of the theoretical-practical classrooms.
Minimum grade in the theoretical evaluation: 10 values
Classification of written exam (100%).
Special evaluation will be provided to all students with a special status, in a date agreed with the Chair.
After the completion of the course unit, students can improve their grades. However, they can only improve the grade of the final exam and not the other components (practical evaluation).