"Clarifying concepts and getting started in a mobile diary study"
Marisa Matias (Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences – University of Porto)
Intensive longitudinal methods allow for reducing retrospection bias that is associated with usual survey design and allow researchers to examine questions that are not amenable in traditional study designs. These research questions can be sorted into three major categories: “(a) What are the average experiences of an individual, and how much do the experiences vary over time? (b) Is there systematic change in experiences across days, and do such trajectories differ across persons? (c) What processes underlie a person’s changes, and how do people differ in this process?” (Ilda et al., 2012). The purpose of this presentation is to differentiate among intensive longitudinal designs and assist the audience in clarifying concepts as well as picking up the best design for their research purposes. An additional aim is to highlight the strengths of these methods as well as the main difficulties in designing and implementing such studies using mobile devices.
"The Use of Ecological Momentary Assessements in Psychotherapy: The experience in the iCare4Depression Project"
João Salgado (ISMAI)
Psychological assessment based on intensive measurements, known as "momentary ecological assessment" (EMA), has been promising to overcome problems in evaluation and research in psychology, such as retrospective bias, and to promote the creation of larger databases. This goes hand-by-hand with the emergence of new mobile devices, making this kind of measurements simpler and easier. In the scope of the iCare4Depression project, EMAs are used as means of evaluating patients who are being treated with a cognitive-behavioral treatment in a "blended" format - that is, combining face-to-face with the online treatment modules. This project started with a pilot study, which enabled to detect several potential problems and obstacles for the use of EMAs in the routine clinical practice.
"Daily stress and how to cope with it: a mobile diary study of university students"
Anna Rönka (University of Jyväskyla; Finland)
Anna Rönkä will present results of a one-week mobile diary study that she has conducted with her Finnish colleagues. In the study, 86 university students reported their level of stress and the means they used to deal with stress once a day, during a week. The mobile diary included both structured questions (e.g., study hours, academic stress) along with open-ended questions concerning the means students used to cope with stress. The students received and responded to the questions with their mobile phones, as text messages. The results showed a large individual variation in the level of daily stress. Seven types of dealing with stress was identified: relaxing leisure time, time management, positive thinking, social relations, physical activity, promoting studies and sleep/nutrition. Most of these means of dealing with stress proved to be effective when changes in the level of stress were measured for three consecutive days.
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