Environmental pollution is a recognized issue of major concern since a wide range of contaminants has been found in aquatic environment at ng L-1 to mu g L-1 levels. In the year 2000, a strategy was defined to identify the priority substances concerning aquatic ecosystems, followed by the definition of environmental quality standards (EQS) in 2008. Recently it was launched the Directive 2013/39/EU that updates the water framework policy highlighting the need to develop new water treatment technologies to deal with such problem. This review summarizes the data published in the last decade regarding the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) to treat priority compounds and certain other pollutants defined in this Directive, excluding the inorganic species (cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel and their derivatives). The Directive 2013/39/EU includes several pesticides (aldrin, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dicofol, dieldrin, endrin, endosulfan, isodrin, heptachlor, lindane, pentachlorophenol, chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinphos, dichlorvos, atrazine, simazine, terbutryn, diuron, isoproturon, trifluralin, cypermethrin, alachlor), solvents (dichloromethane, dichloroethane, trichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid and its derivatives (PFOS), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), nonylphenol and octylphenol, as well as the three compounds included in the recommendation for the first watch list of substances (diclofenac, 17-alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and 17-beta-estradiol (E2)). Some particular pesticides (aclonifen, bifenox, cybutryne, quinoxyfen), organotin compounds (tributyltin), dioxins and dioxin-like compounds, brominated diphenylethers, hexabromocyclododecanes and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate are also defined in this Directive, but studies dealing with AOPs are missing. AOPs are recognized tools to destroy recalcitrant compounds or, at least, to transform them into biodegradable species. Diuron (a phenylurea herbicide) and atrazine (from the triazine chemical class) are the most studied pesticides from Directive 2013/39/EU. Fenton-based processes are the most frequently applied to treat priority compounds in water and their efficiency typically increases with the operating temperature as well as under UV or solar light. Heterogeneous photocatalysis is the second most used treatment to destroy pollutants defined in the Directive. Ozone alone promotes the partial oxidation of pollutants, and an increase in the effluent biodegradability, but complete mineralization of pollutants is difficult. To overcome this drawback, ozonation has been combined with heterogeneous catalysts, addition of H2O2, other AOPs (such as photocatalysis) or membrane technologies.
Tipo (Avaliação Docente):
Nº de páginas: