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Physics II

Code: EQ0075     Acronym: F II

Classification Keyword
OFICIAL Physical Sciences (Physics)

Instance: 2019/2020 - 2S Ícone do Moodle

Active? Yes
Responsible unit: Department of Engineering Physics
Course/CS Responsible: Master in Chemical Engineering

Cycles of Study/Courses

Acronym No. of Students Study Plan Curricular Years Credits UCN Credits ECTS Contact hours Total Time
MIEQ 82 Syllabus 2 - 6 49 162

Teaching Staff - Responsibilities

Teacher Responsibility
Francisco José Baptista Salzedas

Teaching - Hours

Recitations: 2,50
Laboratory Practice: 1,00
Type Teacher Classes Hour
Recitations Totals 1 2,50
Francisco José Baptista Salzedas 2,50
Laboratory Practice Totals 3 3,00
Francisco José Baptista Salzedas 3,00
Mais informaçõesLast updated on 2020-02-10.

Fields changed: Calculation formula of final grade, Fórmula de cálculo da classificação final

Teaching language



The objectives of this course unit are such that students:

- acquire fundamental knowledge of Electromagnetism, Electrical Circuits, and Geometrical Optics.

- develop reasoning by critically and autonomously solve exercises.

- acquire a critical attitude regarding final results, by using dimensional analysis, estimating the order of magnitude, studying the interdependence between quantities and the study of solution behavior in limit cases.

- develop a discipline of continuous work during the semester.

- develop a respectful attitude: ethical values, mutual respect,and honesty.

Learning outcomes and competences

At the end of this course unit, students should be able to:

- correctly use the laws which rule electromagnetic and geometrical optical phenomena;

- use appropriate technical vocabulary to explain the different concepts.

- present Electromagnetism as a unifying theory of the various electromagnetic and optical phenomena, that can be observed in Nature, and used in technology.

- describe and explain essential concepts of electromagnetism (electric field, electric current, direct current electrical circuits, magnetic field, electromagnetic induction, alternating current electrical circuits, electromagnetic waves), the essential properties of light (propagation, reflexion and refraction) and the basic concepts of geometrical optics (rays tracing and imaging).

- describe and explain the functioning of practical applications of electromagnetism (capacitors, electric resistances, coils, electric engines, electric generators and transformers), of direct and alternating current circuits, and  of geometrical optics (mirrors, lenses and microscopes).

- identify and make a distinction between steady and time-dependent phenomena.

- explain in an elementary level the microscopic mechanisms responsible for macroscopic phenomena: atomic structure of matter, polar and non-polar molecules, Drude model for the electrical conduction, microscopic currents as a source of magnetism and interaction between radiation and matter (absorption and emission).

- show a critical attitude towards the obtained final results.

Working method


Pre-requirements (prior knowledge) and co-requirements (common knowledge)

- knowledge of Newtonian mechanics (Newton's laws, description of forces and motions).

- knowledge of vector calculus (sum, cross and dot products).

- elementary calculus (differentiation and integration of simple functions).

- simple differential equations.




 Atomic structure of matter. Electric charge and its properties. Electrical force between two point charges, Coulomb's law. Principle of Superposition. Continuous charge distributions. Electric field. Field lines. Gauss's law for the electric field. Electric potential energy. Electric potential. Surfaces and equipotential lines. Relationship between electric field and electric potential. Movement of individual charges in electric fields. Electrostatics of conductors. Electrostatic shielding and the Faraday cage. Effect of tips and lightning rod.

 Electric capacity. Electrical capacity of a condenser parallel plate capacitor in vacuum. Electrostatic energy stored in a capacitor. Electric dipole. Dielectric insulating materials. Free and polarization charges. Dielectric susceptibility and electrical relative permeability. Capacitors with dielectrics. Ultra-capacitors. Boundary conditions in dielectrics.

Electrical conductors and insulators. Charge carriers. Electric current. Electrical conduction in metals. Drude model, electrical resistivity and conductivity, local and non-local Ohm's law. Electrical resistance of a cylindrical conductor. Dependence of electrical resistivity with temperature.


 Stationary electric currents as sources of the magnetostatic field. Properties of the magnetic field. Biot-Savart law. Ampere's law and Gauss's law for the magnetic field. Magnetic field lines. Magnetic force on an electric charge. Movement of point electrical charges in magnetic fields. The mass spectrometer. The Hall effect. Magnetic force on an electric current. Magnetic moment of a circular loop. Magnetic forces and magnetic torque in a rectangular coil. Direct current  electric motors. The magnetic dipole. Diamagnetic, paramagnetic and ferromagnetic materials. Relative magnetic permeability. Coils with ferromagnetic core. Hysteresis cycle.

 Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. Magnetic flux. Induced electromotive force. Induced electric current. Lenz's law. Self- inductance and magnetic energy. Alternating electric current generators. Foucault currents.

 Maxwell displacement current and the Ampère-Maxwell law. Electromagnetic field. Construction and physical interpretation of Maxwell's integral equations. Electromagnetic waves. The speed of light in vacuum. The electromagnetic spectrum. Transmitting and receiving antennas of radio waves.

Electrical circuits

Direct current electrical circuits: electromotive force. Ideal and real voltage sources. Internal resistance of a voltage source. Joule’s effect. Dissipated energy and power. Power transfer between a real voltage source and a resistor. Combinations of resistors and capacitors. Charge, current and voltage dividers using resistors and capacitors. Kirchhoff's laws. RC Circuits. Circuit resolution methods with voltage sources, resistances and capacitors.

Alternating current circuits. Transformer. Average value and RMS value of a sinusoidal function. Resistors, inductors and capacitors in AC. Inductive and capacitive reactances. Study of LC and RLC circuits (without and with voltage source). Electrical impedance.

Elements of geometrical optics

Properties of light. Light on an Interface. Reflection of light. Refraction of light. Fermat's principle of least time. Total internal reflection. Optical fibers. Scattering of light. The rainbow.

Introduction to geometrical optics. Plane mirrors. Spherical concave and convex mirrors. Parabolic mirrors. Combinations of mirrors. Thin lenses, converging and diverging lenses. Power of a lens. Combination of lenses.

Mandatory literature

Paul A. Tipler; Física para cientistas e engenheiros. ISBN: 85-216-1215-X (vol.2)

Complementary Bibliography

Young and Freedman; Física IV: Ótica e Física Moderna, Pearson Education do Brasil, 2008. ISBN: 978-85-88639-35-5
Young and Freedman; Física III: Eletromagnetismo, Pearson Education do Brasil, 2008. ISBN: 978-85-88639-34-8
Alonso Marcelo; Física. ISBN: 978-972-592-296-5
Moore Thomas A.; Six ideas that shaped physics. ISBN: 0-07-043049-7

Teaching methods and learning activities

- Recitations classes (TP): presentation of concepts, examples, experimental demonstrations, and problem-solving.

- Practical classes (P): problem-solving under the supervision of the instructor.


Physical sciences > Physics > Electromagnetism
Physical sciences > Physics > Optics

Evaluation Type

Distributed evaluation without final exam

Assessment Components

Designation Weight (%)
Teste 100,00
Total: 100,00

Amount of time allocated to each course unit

Designation Time (hours)
Estudo autónomo 113,00
Frequência das aulas 49,00
Total: 162,00

Eligibility for exams

Atendance to school follow the regulation of the UP.

- Continuous assessment (CA) will be based on 3 tests (T1, T2 and T3). The third test will take place in the first week of the normal season. Each will last up to 1hour and 30 min.

-Dates of the tests are to be announced early in the semester.

Calculation formula of final grade

- The final grade is the average of the Continuous Assessment (CA) (T1+T2+T3)/3 or the grade obtained in the exame performed in the "Recurso" season (0 - 20 points).

- If a test is missed by the student the grade assigned to that test is zero.

- The final exam grade (FEG) in the "Recurso" season is:
if E >= 8,0    FEG = MAX(E; E*0,55+2mAD*0,45)
if E < 8,0    FEG = E

E    - exam grade (0-20 points)
2mAD    - average of the two highest grades obtained in CA tests (0-20 points)

Examinations or Special Assignments

Not applicable.

Internship work/project

Not applicable.

Special assessment (TE, DA, ...)

- Students with a working student status do not need to attend classes. Their final grade can be obatined, as explained above, through 3 continuous assessment tests or by the grade achieved in the final exam.

Classification improvement

Final Exam ("Exame final da época de recurso").


- Besides attendance to classes, students should study around 6 hours per week for this course unit.

 - Any attempt of FRAUD during the continuous assessment means that students will not be admitted to exams.

- Weekly support to students can be schedule directly with the teatcher

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