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Microelectronic and Microelectromechanical Technologies

Code: PDEEC0009     Acronym: MMT

Classification Keyword
OFICIAL Electrical and Computer Engineering

Instance: 2019/2020 - 1S

Active? Yes
Web Page: moodle.fe.up.pt
Responsible unit: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Course/CS Responsible: Doctoral Program in Electrical and Computer Engineering

Cycles of Study/Courses

Acronym No. of Students Study Plan Curricular Years Credits UCN Credits ECTS Contact hours Total Time
PDEEC 1 Syllabus since 2015/16 1 - 7,5 70 202,5

Teaching Staff - Responsibilities

Teacher Responsibility
Vítor Manuel Grade Tavares

Teaching - Hours

Recitations: 3,00
Type Teacher Classes Hour
Recitations Totals 1 3,00
Vítor Manuel Grade Tavares 3,00

Teaching language



The objective of this course is to develop the background knowledge necessary to understand the state-of-the-art of semiconductor and Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) technologies, as well as the issues of integrating mechanical elements and electronics.  A comprehensive, semester-long project is assigned, comprising the design of a sensor and the electronic front-end. This process requires the understanding of analogue design techniques as well as the basic design-flow used in the fabrication of MEMS devices, providing the integrated view of a MEMS-based sensor and analog front-end design.  The basic concepts and circuits, for global noise reduction and interface between MEM-analogue and digital worlds, both at the circuit level and design methodologies, are also addressed for the understanding of the fundamental aspects associated with full system integration.

Learning outcomes and competences

At the end of the course students should be able to:

 1.Identify the MEMS structures and interpret its functionality.

 2.Interpret a set of specifications for the MEMS sensor,  and design a basic MEMS structure.

 3.By means of the sensor specifications, specify the minimum performance required to the readout electronics by the MEMS sensor.

 4.Decide the best circuit topologies based on the specifications set.

 5.Search for new topologies and interpret them, based on acquired knowledge, in order to adapt the topologies to the required specifications.

 6.Participate in teamwork, resulting from the proposed project activity in the course and that has multiple dependencies.

 7.Design, simulate and conceive a CMOS circuit to the level of tap-out.


Working method


Pre-requirements (prior knowledge) and co-requirements (common knowledge)

Knowledge on fundamental aspects of electronic circuits, feedback and compensation, as well as in CMOS technology.


The course covers the following subjects:

MEMS Design: 

1- IC and MEMS history – The integration perspective.

2- Introduction to MEMS: Main physical concepts: piezoresistivity, piezoelectricity, capacitive transduction.

3- Silicon mechanical properties.

4- MEMS fabrication: surface and bulk micromachining. 

5- Design rules.

6- Devices basics: Inertial and pressure sensors.

7- Modeling of MEMS: Lumped modeling, mechanical domain modeling, electromechanical domain modeling.

8- Damping in MEMS: Squeeze film damping modeling.

 CMOS Design:

1- MOS capacitor. 

2- MOSFET operation  - Strong and weak inversions (Modeling). 

3- Higher order effects on MOSFET operation (Modeling). 

4- MOSFET intrinsic caps and AC Model.  

5- Models suitable for hand-calculations: Long-channel, lateral and vertical field mobility degradation – Short-Channel. 

6- Spice Models. 

7- Technology rules and layout. 

8- Layout extraction and LVS - Inverter Example.

9- Basic Analog Cells - Introduction.

10- Voltage and current reference cells.

11- Current mirrors – Active loads

12- Two stage CMOS amplifier analysis. 

13- Fully differential amplifiers. 

14- CMFB & CMFF.

15- High-bandwidth amplifiers.

16- Low-voltage design.

17- Noise definitions.

18- Noise sources in analog and mixed signal circuits.

19- Input referred noise and noise factor.

20- Noise analysis in amplifiers.

21- Capacitive MEMS read-chain – Introduction.

22- Resolution and noise specs.

23- Analog vs discrete-time read-chain.

24- Continuous time, low-noise design: Charge Amplifier design and Chopper stabilization.

25- Switched Capacitor (SC) circuits and analysis.

26- Clock Feedthrough (CFT): noise, offset, nonlinearity.

27- Minimum design Specs: Noise (sampled), bandwidth, gain...

28- Noise reduction in SC circuits: Full differential design, Correlated Double-sampling (CDS) and delayed switching.

29- SC charge amplifier.

30- A/D and D/A concept and signal conditioning

31- Filter specifications and approximations for signal conditioning: Butterworth, Chebyshev, Elliptical.

32- SC Filters synthesis.

33- Gm-C Filters (synthesis).

34- Gm linear circuits.

35- A/D and D/A figures of merit.

36- Converter types with emphasis on Sigma-Delta.

Mandatory literature

Allen, Phillip E.; CMOS analog circuit design. ISBN: 0-19-511644-5
Baker, R. Jacob; CMOS circuit design, layout, and simulation. ISBN: 0-7803-3416-7
Johns, David; Analog integrated circuit design. ISBN: 0-471-14448-7
S. D. Senturia; Microsystems Design
Behzad Razavi; Design of Analog CMOS Integrated Circuits

Teaching methods and learning activities

This course combines lecture and project work to provide students with a practical, hands-on approach to microelectronics and micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technologies and systems conception. The lecture classes will take about half of the direct contact time, and will cover three main modules: Microelectronic principles, MEMS sensors and actuators and Signal conditioning and interfacing.




Technological sciences > Engineering > Electronic engineering
Technological sciences > Engineering > Electrical engineering

Evaluation Type

Distributed evaluation with final exam

Assessment Components

Designation Weight (%)
Exame 40,00
Participação presencial 0,00
Trabalho escrito 30,00
Trabalho laboratorial 30,00
Total: 100,00

Amount of time allocated to each course unit

Designation Time (hours)
Elaboração de projeto 80,00
Estudo autónomo 64,00
Total: 144,00

Eligibility for exams

Passing all individual grading items (project, homework assignments and exams)

Calculation formula of final grade

Final mark=0,3*Assignments + 0,3*Project + 0,2*FirstMidtermExam + 0,2*SecondMidtermExam

Examinations or Special Assignments

Not forseen

Internship work/project

Not forseen

Special assessment (TE, DA, ...)

Not forseen

Classification improvement

Not forseen

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