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Markets and Regulation

Code: PDEEC0001     Acronym: MR

Classification Keyword
OFICIAL Electrical and Computer Engineering

Instance: 2019/2020 - 1S

Active? Yes
Responsible unit: Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Course/CS Responsible: Doctoral Program in Electrical and Computer Engineering

Cycles of Study/Courses

Acronym No. of Students Study Plan Curricular Years Credits UCN Credits ECTS Contact hours Total Time
PDEEC 1 Syllabus since 2015/16 1 - 7,5 70 202,5

Teaching Staff - Responsibilities

Teacher Responsibility
João Paulo Tomé Saraiva

Teaching - Hours

Recitations: 3,00
Type Teacher Classes Hour
Recitations Totals 1 3,00
João Paulo Tomé Saraiva 3,00

Teaching language



The course on Markets and Regulation aims at analyzing the issues faced by firms and regulators in the new liberalized electricity markets. Accordingly, as a result of attending this course and having a positive final grading, the students will gain a number of learning outcomes in advanced areas related with the organization and operation of whole sale electricity markets, expansion planning mdeols in market environment, tariff structures and tariff regulatory strategies to be adopted by regulatory agencies.This involves analyzing the most relevant models that have been used to form the new skeleton of power systems; reactive power/voltage control in the scope of an integrate problem to contract active and reactive powers and enabling the calculation of active and reactive nodal power prices, the operation of hydro stations in markets as price takers and as price makers, the long term expansion planning of generation systems using Dynamic Systems, the long term expansion of transmission systems, regulation and regulatory approaches and the analysis of the Portuguese tariff code as an illustration of the unbundling of the integrated tariff systems in order to create additive non-biased systems. An important objective of this course is to contribute to develop the capacity of the students to work autonomously, to do bibliographic research, to prepare written reports and to deliver oral presentations.

Learning outcomes and competences

Obtaining approval in this course enables the students to obtain advanced skills regarding the design and operation of electricity markets, regulatory strategies and conception of tariff systems. It also enables students to develop skills related with the preparation of written reports and the delivery of oral presentations.

Working method



The contents of the course on Markets and Regulation include the following topics:

- analysis of the models and structures resulting from the adoption of market mechanisms in the electricity sector. In this scope, they will be revised the basic concepts of wholesale and retail, the ISO/TSO and Market Operator, it will be addressed the pay-as-bid versus uniform price auction, simple bids versus complex bids, bilateral physical and financial contracts, congestion and ways to address it;

- operation of hydro stations in electricity markets as price takers and as price makers;

- brief reference to the concept of ancillary services. Analysis of the voltage control/reactive power in the scope of an integrate problem to contract active and reactive powers and enabling the calculation of active and reactive nodal power prices;

- long term expansion planning problems - application to generation systems using Dynamic Systems and to transmission systems using Simulated Annealing;

- evaluation of the impact of Special Regime Generation in the markets prices and calibration of capacity terms - application to the MIBEL;

- the concept of regulation, and its historical evolution. Regulatory strategies: Cost-Of-Service/Rate of Return, and Incentives approaches, including Price Caps, Revenue Caps and Benchmark Regulation. The regulation of transmission and distribution wiring activities in some countries;

- the Portuguese tariff system will be used as an example of an unbiased additive system. In this scope, they will be referred the regulated activities, the corresponding tariffs, costs and adopted regulated strategies, the composition of basic tariffs to construct access tariffs and the incentives to improve Quality of Service and the more effective operation of networks included in this system. It will also be analysed the answer of regulated wiring companies to the signals transmitted by the Regulatory Board, namely in terms of some Quality of Service indices.

- analysis of the evolution of the electricity sector in some states of the USA (talk by video conference by a colleague of Alsthom, Seatle, USA).

Mandatory literature

João Saraiva, José Luís Silva, Maria Teresa Leão; Mercados de Electricidade - Regulação e Tarifação de Uso das Redes, FEUP Edições, 2002. ISBN: 972-752-053-7
S. Stoft; Power System Economics, IEEE/Wiley, 2002. ISBN: 0-471-15040-1
G. Tothwell, T. Gomez (edt); Electricity Economics - Regulation and Deregulation, IEEE Press Series on Power Engineering, 2003. ISBN: 0471234370

Complementary Bibliography

Elder António de Oliveira Matos, Víctor Manuel da Rocha Gilvaz ; orient. Prof. Doutor João Paulo; Previsão de preços de energia eléctrica em mercados de electricidade, utilizando redes neuronais
José Carlos Vieira Sousa ; orient. Prof. Doutor João Paulo Tomé Saraiva; Estimativa da remuneração de centrais hídricas em mercados de electricidade
André Fernando Ribeiro de Sá; Simulador dos operadores de mercado e de sistema em mercados de electricidade adoptando um modelo AC
Andr+e Soares de Carvalho Pacheco; Otimização da exploração de centrais hídricas utilizando EPSO, em ambiente de mercado, MSc thesis, FEUP February 2013, 2013
Carlos António Pereira de Castro Andresen Guerreiro; Otimização da exploração de centrais hídricas em ambinte de mercado, considerando oi impacto nos preços, MSc Thesis, FEUP January 2014, 2014

Teaching methods and learning activities

According to the indications in the Plan of Studies of the program, the course on Markets and Regulation involves classes in order to expose the topics of the program and to present and discuss illustrative examples. These classes will use power point files that will be made available to the students as complementary studying material. Along the classes several case studies will be discussed in order to highlight specific topics to be addressed. Finally, the students will present the results obtained in the assignments they are asked to complete along the course and they will deliver a specific presentation regarding a topic they select in the scope of the course. This oral presentation corresponds to a specific assignment and has a weight of 10% in the final grade.


Technological sciences > Engineering > Electrical engineering

Evaluation Type

Distributed evaluation with final exam

Assessment Components

Designation Weight (%)
Apresentação/discussão de um trabalho científico 10,00
Exame 50,00
Trabalho escrito 40,00
Total: 100,00

Amount of time allocated to each course unit

Designation Time (hours)
Apresentação/discussão de um trabalho científico 7,50
Estudo autónomo 105,00
Frequência das aulas 70,00
Trabalho escrito 20,00
Total: 202,50

Eligibility for exams

Frequency will be obtained if the students are graded more than 50% on 5 of the 6 assignments that will be done in the course.

Calculation formula of final grade

The components to be considered in the evaluation of the students are:

- Assignments;

- Final exam.

Each component will receive a grading in the scale 0-20.The final score will be calculated according to the following rule:

((type 1*10%) + (type 2*10%) +0,75*Sum(type 3*10%) + FinalExam * 50%)/100

In this expression Sum represents the sum of the grades of each of the 4 type 3 assignments to be completed. The grade of the assigments and of the final Exam are given in the scale 0-20.

Examinations or Special Assignments

The course on Markets and Regulation will involve three types of assignments:

- type 1 – preparation and delivery of one power point presentation (20 min) addressing a specific topic specially relevant in view of the topics being addressed in the classes. This topic will be selected by tyhe student and validated by the course responsible. These presentations can address the structure of the electricity market in force in a country to be selected and papers considered specially relevant for the course. There will be one assignments of this type;

- type 2 – solution of a numerical problem involving the solution of optimization problems using the Excel Solver tool, and the delivery of a short report on the approach adopted to tackle the problem, the results obtained and comments on them. This assignment involves the simulation of a symmetric pool;

- type 3 – literature review regarding a specific topic to be selected together with the preparation of a final report. This will correspond to four assignments and they can be viewed as an initial step on their way towards the preparation of the state of the art towards the dissertation.

As a whole, the course on Markets and Regulation involves 6 assignments, as follows: 1 of type 1, 1 of type 2 and 4 of type 3 assignments.

Special assessment (TE, DA, ...)

These students will be subject to all evaluation procedures of regular students, i.e., they must deliver their assignments specified during the course plus any special works also specified plus a final exam, the only difference towards regular students being that they are not required to attend classes and deliver assignments in the same dates as regular students, in the cases the law specifically states it.

Classification improvement

The classification of the exam can be improved by making a new exam. The scores of the assigments will not be subjected to improvments.

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