Go to:
Esta página em português Ajuda Autenticar-se
Formação regular da Biblioteca |fevereiro a maio
You are here: Start > EIC0039

Site map
Edifício A (Administração) Edifício B (Aulas) - Bloco I Edifício B (Aulas) - Bloco II Edifício B (Aulas) - Bloco III Edifício B (Aulas) - Bloco IV Edifício C (Biblioteca) Edifício D (CICA) Edifício E (Química) Edifício F (Minas e Metalurgia) Edifício F (Minas e Metalurgia) Edifício G (Civil) Edifício H (Civil) Edifício I (Electrotecnia) Edifício J (Electrotecnia) Edifício K (Pavilhão FCNAUP) Edifício L (Mecânica) Edifício M (Mecânica) Edifício N (Garagem) Edifício O (Cafetaria) Edifício P (Cantina) Edifício Q (Central de Gases) Edifício R (Laboratório de Engenharia do Ambiente) Edifício S (INESC) Edifício T (Torre do INEGI) Edifício U (Nave do INEGI) Edifício X (Associação de Estudantes)

Formal Methods in Software Engineering

Code: EIC0039     Acronym: MFES

Classification Keyword
OFICIAL Software Engineering

Instance: 2012/2013 - 1S

Active? Yes
Web Page: http://paginas.fe.up.pt/~apaiva/teach/1213/MFES.htm
Responsible unit: Department of Informatics Engineering
Course/CS Responsible: Master in Informatics and Computing Engineering

Cycles of Study/Courses

Acronym No. of Students Study Plan Curricular Years Credits UCN Credits ECTS Contact hours Total Time
MIEEC 0 Syllabus 4 - 6 56 162
MIEIC 114 Syllabus since 2009/2010 4 - 6 56 162

Teaching - Hours

Lectures: 2,00
Recitations: 2,00
Type Teacher Classes Hour
Lectures Totals 1 2,00
Ana Cristina Ramada Paiva 2,00
Recitations Totals 5 10,00
Rui Filipe Lima Maranhão de Abreu 4,00
Ana Cristina Ramada Paiva 6,00

Teaching language

Suitable for English-speaking students


Students should have knowledge about software processes and software modelling.
To develop abstraction capabilities in order to describe what the system should do and not the way to do it. Be familiar with formal methods and the way they can contribute to increase the quality of software systems.
Software engineering; Computing Theory; Algorithm design and analysis.
Scientific component:75%
Technological component:25%
At the end of the course students should be able to:
- Apply formal methods of specification (based on models, based on properties, based on behavior) and verification ("Model-checking, formal proofs and test) in the development of software systems.
- Identify existing formal methods and know when they should be applied and which are most suitable in each case.


1. Introduction
1.1 What are formal methods?
1.2 Importance and applicability of formal methods in the development of software
1.3 Life cycle models and software development processes by incorporating formal methods.
1.4 Specification, refinement, implementation, verification and validation
1.5 Classification of formal methods
1.6 Explicit vs. implicit models, executable vs. non-executable
1.7 Formal verification techniques

2. Alloy Constraint Analyser for modelling and semantic analysis
2.1 Declarative modelling
2.2 Difference related to model checking
2.3 Alloy commands
2.4 Functions; predicates; facts; assertions and verifications (checks)
2.5 Static vs. dynamic modelling
2.6 Simulation of an operation
2.7 Check safety properties
2.8 Alloy analyser tool

3. Model Based Specification
3.1 VDM-SL and VDM++ languages
3.2 Data representation based on mathematical structures (sets, sequences, finite functions)
3.3 State and non-state specification
3.4 Definition of types, values and functions
3.5 Definition of classes, instance variables and operations
3.6 Expressions and instructions
3.7 Design-by-contact: definition of invariables, preconditions and postconditions
3.8 Description of algorithms, executable specifications
3.9 Analysis of specification consistency
3.10 Connection of VDM++ to UML
3.11 Code generation from a formal specification
3.12 VDMTools

4. Model Based Specification (OCL)
4.1 OCL language
4.2 Comparison with VDM++.

5. Logic and model checking
5.1 Propositional, predicate, linear temporal (LTL) and computer tree logic (CTL)
5.2 State representation
5.3 Model checking:
5.3.1 properties: safety, fairness, liveness, universality, possibility, absence, response, precedence
5.3.2 The state explosion problem (techniques to diminish the problem): Symbolic state; bounds; on-the-fly; Partial Order Reduction (POR); abstraction

6. Formal proofs
6.1 Application of Hoare’s logic to algorithm correction
6.2 Gallina specification language: types of expressions, propositions and proofs; inductive data types; proof and automation tactics; inductive predicates
6.3 Program Correctness Proof
6.4 Coq, Caduceus, JAPE and Krakatoa

Mandatory literature

Daniel Jackson; Software Abstractions, MIT Press, 2006. ISBN: 0-262-10114-9
Fitzgerald, John; Validated designs for object-oriented systems. ISBN: 1-85233-881-4
Jos Warmer e Anneke Kleppe; The Object Constraint Language Second Edition. ISBN: 978-0-321-17936-4
Richard Bornat; Proof and Disproof in Formal Logic, Oxford University Press, 2005. ISBN: 0-19-8530269
B. Bérard; M. Bidoit; A. Finkel; F. Laroussinie; A. Petit; L. Petrucci; Ph. Schnoebelen; P. McKenzie; Systems and Software Verification - Model Checking Techniques and Tools, Springer, 2001. ISBN: 3-540-41523-8

Complementary Bibliography

Clarke, Jr., Edmund M.; Model checking. ISBN: 0-262-03270-8
Fitzgerald, John; Modelling systems. ISBN: 0-521-62605-6
Alagar, V. S.; Specification of software systems. ISBN: 0-387-98430-5

Teaching methods and learning activities

Theoretical classes will be based on the presentation of the themes of the course.
Practical classes will be based on exercises, so that students can contact with the various tools available and to do their assignments.


Alloy Analyzer
Octopus: OCL Tool for Precise Uml Specifications


Technological sciences > Technology > Computer technology > Software technology
Technological sciences > Engineering > Computer engineering

Evaluation Type

Distributed evaluation with final exam

Assessment Components

Description Type Time (hours) Weight (%) End date
Attendance (estimated) Participação presencial 56,00
Mini and final exams Exame 6,00 2012-02-10
Study for realization of practical work Trabalho laboratorial 20,00 2011-12-20
Lab work Trabalho laboratorial 40,00 2011-12-20
Total: - 0,00

Amount of time allocated to each course unit

Description Type Time (hours) End date
Individual study Estudo autónomo 40 2011-12-20
Total: 40,00

Eligibility for exams

Students have to reach a minimum mark of 45% in the continuous assessment component.
The presence in the practical classes is recorded and mandatory according to existing legislation.

Calculation formula of final grade

Distributed evaluation with final exam, with the following components:
(A) Open book mini-test (Alloy) - 1 hour (40% of the final mark), minimum grade of 45%.
(B) Practical work - (25% of the final mark), minimum grade of 45%.
(C) Open book final exam - 1h 30m (35% of the final mark), minimum grade of 45%.

Final grade = (A) * 40% + (B) * 25% + (C) * 35%

Comment: The difference between Final Mark and the mark of the exam cannot be higher than 3 points. It will be adjusted if it is.
Students who fail to obtain approval in Alloy mini test module may make a further assessment on the final exam of the course.
The Alloy component can only be improved in second exame.

Examinations or Special Assignments

Mini Exam about Alloy on the 31st October.

Practical work of VDM++:
- Delivery by 23:00 on the 7th December;
- Defense of practical work during the practical lessons of the week 10 Dec -14 Dec.

The defense of practical work is mandatory for ALL students.

Special assessment (TE, DA, ...)

Students excused from attendance at practical classes should contact the teacher for special sessions of follow up.

The defense of practical work is mandatory for ALL students.

Classification improvement

- The classification of the mini exam can only be improved in the appeal exam.
- Students who do not obtain approval in mini exam may make an additional module of 1h in the appeal exam.
- The marks obtained in practical work can be improved in the next edition of the discipline
- The classification of the test can be improved by in the appeal exame.


Students with class attendance in the previous year will have to take an exam with 2h30 (including the Alloy component).
The marks obtained in the previous year in the work of VDM++ will be used as a mark for the work in VDM++ of this edition.
Recommend this page Top
Copyright 1996-2019 © Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto  I Terms and Conditions  I Accessibility  I Index A-Z  I Guest Book
Page generated on: 2019-05-20 at 22:21:36