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Animal Nutrition

Code: BIOL3018     Acronym: BIOL3018     Level: 300

Classification Keyword

Instance: 2022/2023 - 1S Ícone do Moodle

Active? Yes
Responsible unit: Department of Biology
Course/CS Responsible: First Degree in Biology

Cycles of Study/Courses

Acronym No. of Students Study Plan Curricular Years Credits UCN Credits ECTS Contact hours Total Time
L:B 83 Official Study Plan 3 - 6 48 162

Teaching Staff - Responsibilities

Teacher Responsibility
Ana Maria Pimentel Rodrigues
Aires Manuel Pereira de Oliva Teles

Teaching - Hours

Theoretical classes: 1,71
Laboratory Practice: 1,72
Type Teacher Classes Hour
Theoretical classes Totals 1 1,71
Ana Maria Pimentel Rodrigues 0,85
Aires Manuel Pereira de Oliva Teles 0,86
Laboratory Practice Totals 4 6,88
Maria Helena Tabuaço Rego Martins Peres 3,51
Ana Maria Pimentel Rodrigues 3,37

Teaching language

Suitable for English-speaking students


Provide students with basic knowledge on metabolism and nutritional requirements of farm and aquaculture animal species; feed formulation and feed processing; routine analytical techniques used in animal nutrition labs.

Learning outcomes and competences

Acquisition of general knowledge on animal nutrition; acquire competences for doing research and technical works in the field of animal nutrition

Working method



THEORETICAL CLASSES - Introduction. Animal production and nutritional requirements of mankind. The importance of animal nutrition within animal production industry. Overview of compound feed production. - Analytical composition of animals and plants. Main factors affecting body composition. Methods for the estimation of in vivo animal body composition. - Animal growth. Physiological basis of growth. Characterization of growth curves. Definition of precocious animals and of compensatory growth. Main factors affecting animal growth. - Proximate analysis of feeds by the Weende and Van Soest approaches. Reference to other analytical techniques routinely used in animal nutrition labs. - Digestive processes. Functional anatomy of the digestive tract. Digestive enzymes. Microbiological fermentation of feeds. Main factors affecting digestibility. Methods used in digestibility evaluation. Methods used in feces collection. True and apparent digestibility. - Nutritional energetics. Conventional scheme of diet energy partition. Main factors affecting diet energy utilization. Efficiency of energy utilization for maintenance and production. Use of direct and indirect calorimetry for estimation of heat production. Establishing energy balances. - Requirements and metabolism of nutrients: o Carbohydrates. Functions. Classification and characterization. Utilization of carbohydrates in different species. o Lipids. Functions. Classification and characterization. Essential fatty acids. Methods for evaluating lipid quality. Lipid oxidation. Qualitative and quantitative fatty acid requirements. Utilization of lipids in different species. o Proteins and amino acids. Functions. Classification and characterization. Essential and non-essential amino acids. Protein and amino acid requirements in different species. Protein nutritive value. Establishing nitrogen balances. o Vitamins. Notion of vitamin, functions and requirements in different species. o Minerals. Notion of essential mineral. Function and requirements in different species. 
PRACTICAL CLASSES - Sampling and preparation of samples for analysis. - Proximate analysis of feeds by the Weende approach: determination dry matter, ash, crude protein, crude lipids, crude fiber and nitrogen free extract. - Gross energy determination by adiabatic calorimeter. - Formulation of compound feeds. Practical considerations. Selection of feedstuffs based on price and nutrient content.
Estimation of parameters used in the evaluation of nutritional trials.

Mandatory literature

McDonald, Edwards, Greenhalg, Morgan, Sinclair, Wilkinson;Animal Nutrition. Prentice Hall. , 2011
Pond, Pond, Schoknecht, Church; Basic Animal Nutrition and Feeding, Wiley International, 2005

Complementary Bibliography

Dryden, G.McL; Animal Nutrition Science, CABI, 2008
Guillaume, Kaushik, Bergot, Métailler; Nutrition and Feeding of Fish and Crustaceans, Springer, 1999
Halver, Hardy; Fish Nutrition, Academic Press, 2002

Teaching methods and learning activities

Exposition of the program (Theorectical classes) and laboratory classes.


Natural sciences > Biological sciences > Nutritional sciences
Natural sciences > Agrarian Sciences > Zootechnics > Animal nutrition

Evaluation Type

Evaluation with final exam

Assessment Components

designation Weight (%)
Exame 100,00
Participação presencial 0,00
Total: 100,00

Amount of time allocated to each course unit

designation Time (hours)
Frequência das aulas 42,00
Total: 42,00

Eligibility for exams

Students must attend 2/3 of the practical classes to have access to the final exam.

Calculation formula of final grade

Students may do 2 mid term written exams and will be aproved if the sum of the two exams is higher than 9.5 values. Students may do a final written exam and will be aproved if classification is higher than 9.5 values. Students that are aproved in the mid term exams may also do the final exam but then only the final exam classification will be considered.

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