|Responsible unit:||Department of Biology|
|Course/CS Responsible:||First Degree in Landscape Architecture|
|Acronym||No. of Students||Study Plan||Curricular Years||Credits UCN||Credits ECTS||Contact hours||Total Time|
|L:AP||24||Planos de estudos a partir 2009||2||-||7,5||-|
|L:AST||0||Plano de Estudos a partir de 2008||3||-||7,5||-|
|L:F||1||Plano de estudos a partir de 2008||3||-||7,5||-|
|L:G||0||P.E - estudantes com 1ª matricula anterior a 09/10||3||-||7,5||-|
|P.E - estudantes com 1ª matricula em 09/10||3||-||7,5||-|
|L:M||0||Plano de estudos a partir de 2009||3||-||7,5||-|
|L:Q||0||Plano de estudos Oficial||3||-||7,5||-|
|Maria Fernanda da Silva Fidalgo Ferro de Beça|
|Paula Maria Vieira de Melo Gomes|
The basic objective of the course is to make the student understand how plants work. Plants are complex organisms and the course will focus on physiological aspects that make them unique organisms. The course will especially focus on the biochemical and the molecular mechanisms underlying plant growth and development. How plants interact with physical conditions of their environment will be a matter to explore too.
The frequency of curricular unit should allow students, having competence and ability to:
a) Understand the importance of plants in the current society
b) Relating anatomical characteristics of the plant with its function, habitat and response to environment
c) Understand the basic physiology of plants and how this is regulated by endogenous and environmental signs
c) Understand the potential of plant biotechnology, its uses and applications
Why study plants? Importance and peculiarity of plants and reasons for its study Plant anatomy and development - basic notions. Effect of environmental factors on leaf transpiration – mechanisms of control of stomatal opening. Phytochrome and photocontrol of plant development. Photomorphogenesis mediated by red light: Phytochrome: ecological functions of phytochrome – sleep movements of leaves, shade avoidance, seeds germination. Responses to light blue: phototropism, rapid stem elongation inhibition and stimulation of the opening of stomata. Blue light photoreceptors: criptocroms, fototropins and zeaxanthin. Photosynthesis: general concepts, physiological and ecological considerations. Physiology of flowering.Physiological responses and adaptations of plants to environmental stress abiotic: water stress; heat stress; luminous stress; oxidative stress. Responses and adaptations to biotic stress: defence of plants to attack by herbivores and pathogens and response to the presence of antagonist plants.
Mineral nutrients. Essential nutrients. Classification of mineral nutrients according to their relative concentration in plant tissue and according to biochemical function. Hydroponics: principles and applications. Radial transport of nutrients through the roots. Nutrient absorption and transport systems through the membranes. Loading of the xylem. Translocation of the elements in the plant. Transport in the phloem and mobility of nutrients in the phloem. Importance of mobility in the phloem of the diagnostic symptoms of nutritional deficiency. Function and deficiency symptoms of macronutrients and micronutrients Mn and Fe. Major limitations of analysis of symptomatology. Biochemical diagnosis of nutritional deficiency.
Plant growth and development, and internal and environmental signals. Signal molecules in plants. Plant hormones; concept and perception. Hormone types. Auxin: the emergence of the auxin concept and chemical identity. Natural and synthetic auxins. Biosynthesis of IAA. Polar transport of IAA. Nonpolar transport of IAA via phloem. Physiological effects of auxin. Main commercial applications of auxin in horticulture and agriculture. Gibberellins (GAs); the discovery of the GAs and chemical identity. Regulation of GAs biosynthesis. Physiological effects of GAs and action mechanisms. GAs signal transduction in cereal aleurone layers. Main commercial applications of GAs. Cytokinins: the discovery and identification. Biosynthesis and transport. The biological roles of cytokinins. Main commercial applications of cytokinins. Ethylene; discovery, structure and biosynthesis. Regulation of ethylene biosynthesis. Physiological effects of ethylene and mechanism of action. Main commercial applications of ethylene. Abscisic acid (ABA); discovery, chemical structure, biosynthesis and transport. Variable concentration of ABA throughout plant development and in response to environmental stress. Physiological effects of ABA. Transduction pathway of ABA in guard cells. Brassinosteroids (BRs); discovery and occurrence. Biosynthesis and transport of BRs. Physiological effects of BRs. Role of BRs in plant protection from abiotic and biotic stresses.
Plant biotechnology - principles and applications. Basic knowledge on plant cell cultures and plant tissues in vitro. In vitro plant propagation. Importance of micropropagation of plants with commercial interest. Transgenic plants: technology; importance; uses and applications; concerns regarding its use.
The recommended bibliography is available in the FCUP library. Complementary study elements will be provided by the respetive Professors.
Lectures and laboratory classes.
Lectures are presented in slideshow using the software "PowerPoint".
Laboratory classes enable the acquisition of specific skills, including those arising from the implementation of practical experiments. These classes are compulsory.
Mandatory attendance at lectures and practices – minimum 2/3 and completion of a report of the pratical work.
Exemption will be given of theoretical and practical lessons to students who obtained frequency at UC in 2 years prior
Theorical exam (T) - 12 points: minimum grade 5 points
Pratical exam (P) - 6 points: minimum grade 2,5 points
Laboratorial work (TL) - 2 points
Final Grade = grade final exam, covering theory (T) and practical subjects (P)
Approval obtained with equal to or greater than 9.5 points.
To improve final grade students need to apply for new exam, according to the current legislation on the subject.