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Modeling and Moulding

Code: MM211     Acronym: MM

Classification Keyword
OFICIAL Fine Arts/Sculpture

Instance: 2019/2020 - 2S

Active? Yes
Responsible unit: Fine Arts Department
Course/CS Responsible: Fine Arts

Cycles of Study/Courses

Acronym No. of Students Study Plan Curricular Years Credits UCN Credits ECTS Contact hours Total Time
AP 22 Official Study Plan 2011 2 - 4,5 64 121,5

Teaching Staff - Responsibilities

Teacher Responsibility
António Rui Ferro Moutinho

Teaching - Hours

Theoretical and practical : 4,00
Type Teacher Classes Hour
Theoretical and practical Totals 1 4,00
António Rui Ferro Moutinho 4,00

Teaching language



The UC mark as overriding general purpose the disseminating of basic procedures of modelling technology, exploring the specificity of the representation of the human figure, from live models. Intends to clarify the students of the three-dimensional structure and drawing interdependent relationship, as light and volume, as body and space, in creating modelled artistic pieces, representations of the human figure.
Other general objectives are:
- Improvement of visual acuity and analytic / synthetic capabilities of volume, space and scale;
- Sensory awareness of forms in three-dimensional space;
- Experimentation of the general principles of composition of the sculpture;
- Experimentation modelling processes of human figure in clay hydrated with water, from the observation of live models;
- Experimentation with traditional moulding processes associated with the artistic field, and applied in the reproduction modelled models;
- Reflections and critical analysis on the worlds of modelling and moulding in the contemporary;
- Research competence, communication and innovation (collection, selection and personalized treatment information);
- Resource management capacity (workspace, equipment and materials).
Specific objectives will be highlighted:
- Recognize the modelling process as a space of freedom associated with the drawing process, the volumetric trial and the transitional sculpture, while pointing volume and scale;
- Increase knowledge of modelling and moulding process, its materials and support tools and methodological interdependencies with other production areas;
- Deepen understanding of the structure of volumes and their spatial relationship;
- Awareness and use of a individual language in making modelling;
- Deepen understanding of artistic human anatomy at the level of osteology and myology;
- Reflection between positive and negative space, form and mould, model and reproduction;

Learning outcomes and competences

The UC promotes a set of proposals relating the student to the modeling process urging him to conquer their results systematically more autonomous, in a specific environment and technical support. That is, from the preparation of matter, the organization of the necessary structures, the implementation of the sketches, as well as control of the volumetric larger scales, its refinement and finishing. The demand and awareness of its own record in modeling processes, an individual language will be the final outcome of this course. Students will also be introduced to the basic issues of mouLding process, while the area to support the achievement of perennial results of the modelling process. They will also be supported in achieving the moulding process in their full complexity of interconnected steps.
The UC will base its thematic focus on the exploration of the human figure starting from three-dimensional references and sessions with a live model. The student will develop a systematic investigation of three-dimensional representation of the human figure, starting from the relief to the round shape, the entire body to fragment, the movement of the body to the portrait study. The learning outcomes of this course will be largely enshrined in finished plaster pieces conquered by moulding processes.
It is expected that students acquire the following skills:
- Idealization capacity, production and conclusion of artistic work, based on the modeling process and materials that are associated with it, and the working relationship with live model;
- Ability to execute various modeling process associated with the water hydrous clay;
- Manipulation, control and preparation of materials modeling and molding, according to the objectives of the work to be performed;
- Selection capacity and performance of various traditional processes of molding on modeled models;
- Understanding the interdependent relationship between modeling and drawing process;
- Understanding the importance of the structure for volume representation;
- Understanding the importance of light to the volume of reading;
- Research, framed in the universe of contemporary artistic practices, modeling and molding processes, its historical evolution and current applications;
- Recognition capabilities, characterization and relationship of the key elements of the human structure, contained in artistic anatomy at the level of osteology and myology;
- Research, framed in the universe of contemporary artistic practices, the representation of the human figure, its historical evolution and current applications;
- Understanding the importance of knowledge about the referent for the synthesis of personal language.

Working method


Pre-requirements (prior knowledge) and co-requirements (common knowledge)

They are not necessary prerequisites to fulfill the objectives of UC, but the results and the skills that obviously intend to enroll in research and questioning of the contemporary art field, must be supported by the ability and passion for drawing.


The UC will explore the pragmatic relationship and interdependence between modeling and molding so that the student can settle basic know how but fundamental to support other levels of research, whether the set that form, either as each individual activity.
Fundamental principles, methodologies, processes, techniques and materials from modeling and molding make, under the sculpture and three-dimensional artistic creation in general, will be explored through a set of proposals based exclusively on the representation of the human figure. This framework will explore the development application and management of operating and construction methods of the practices of modeling and molding from the early twentieth century to the present.
In terms of modeling, it is intended to experience, via a constructive process essentially by addition of matter, from the inside out and from the general to the particular, handling, processing and structuring of water hydrous clay as an ideal raw material. The set of proposed exercises, guide the student in the conquest and organization of three-dimensional shapes in space, where valences such as scale, proportions, internal / external relations and interconnection volumes become compositional elements crucial to the development of the study in question. Will guide the student too to the understanding of the intrinsic relationship of modeling with drawing, with light, with time and body.
In terms of molding, we intend to try a basic and classic set of processes and raw materials that will allow the student to give another consequence to the exercises performed by modeling. Aims to decode the basic relationships between molds and creating modeled models, casting processes material into molds, mainly with the manipulation of the plaster.
The set of proposals intended as promoter of an individual artistic expression research space, but also of reflection on contemporary art and its relation to representation of the human figure, unique and multiple, negative / positive image, repetition and direct contact with model.
The student will develop a systematic investigation of three-dimensional representation of the human figure, starting from the see, feel, draw, into relief, round shape, the entire body involving movement studies, on a small scale, the whole body on average scale, body fragments on full scale, the head study, for portrait studies.
The student will understand drawing as an integrated practice in doing modeling. That is, drawing the matter and matter as drawing. The sculpture relation between drawing and space. Translation of reality, consciously organized, by link between our mechanisms to see shapes and volumes and the knowledge of its structures and its composition in space.

Mandatory literature

Ferro Rui; Processos de Moldagem na FBA.UP
Gsell, Paul ; L'Art, August Rodin. Entretiens Reùnis par Paul Gsell, Bernard Grasset, Éditeur, 1911
Lanteri, ED; Modelling, a guide for teachers and students, Chapman & Hall, ltd., 1902

Complementary Bibliography

Clérin Philippe; La sculpture. ISBN: 2-04-021806-8
Collins Judith; Sculpture today. ISBN: 978-0-7148-4314-8
Hughes Anthony 340; Sculpture and its reproductions. ISBN: 18-61890-02-8
Krauss Rosalind E.; Passages in Modern Sculpture. ISBN: 0-262-61033-7
Mills John W.; Encyclopedia of sculpture techniques. ISBN: 0-7134-8930-8
Paris Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication; La^sculpture
Percy H. M.; New materials in sculpture
Tucker William; The Language of sculpture. ISBN: 0-500-27104-6
Rich Jack C.; The materials and methods of sculpture. ISBN: 0-486-25742-8
AA.VV. ; Procedimientos y materiales en la obra escultórica,, Aka, 2009. ISBN: 978-84-460-1805-6
AA.VV. ; Aplicação de materiais de última geração à fundição escultórica com a utilização de molde químico. Emprego de Poliestireno Expandido como molde gaseificável, FBAUL, 2008
Toft, A.; Modelling and Sculpture: a guide to traditional methods, Dover Publications, 2004. ISBN: 0-486-43511-3

Teaching methods and learning activities

Programme management is carried out through a series of theoretical and practical exercises that aim to cover the above defined contents, aiming the development of capabilities that are listed in paragraph refers to objectives. This set of exercises is the spine of the entire pedagogical strategy since that it is around each one of them that will be mobilize all other measures, including:
1) Presentation of each new proposal, which initially will be developed plastics and technical aspects that they can engage and, secondly, it is established confrontation with art examples from various eras and contemporary artistic practice, through the means available (image projection, video or other);
2) Visits to exhibitions, museums, workshops, and others whose interest and opportunity are suitable to current proposal features or translated into an asset for the artistic education of pupils at this level;
3) Individual or collective discussion of the drafts of the students for each proposal;
4) Individual or collective discussion, focused on the various stages of implementation of the proposal;
5) collective moment of reflection and critical analysis of the set of results at the end of each proposal.
Students will be accompanied at all sessions by the teacher and a technician and have the opportunity to use space and equipment out of these sessions under the supervision of technician and the teacher, when it necessary.


Humanities > Arts > Fine arts > Plastic arts > Sculpture

Evaluation Type

Distributed evaluation without final exam

Assessment Components

Designation Weight (%)
Participação presencial 20,00
Trabalho escrito 20,00
Trabalho laboratorial 60,00
Total: 100,00

Amount of time allocated to each course unit

Designation Time (hours)
Estudo autónomo 30,00
Frequência das aulas 64,00
Trabalho de investigação 27,50
Total: 121,50

Eligibility for exams

The evaluation is distributed, but being exercised at two levels:
First level: evaluation of the result of each ended exercise in confrontation with the applied processes and compliance with the objectives;
Second level: evaluation of student progress throughout the semester, before the file that compiles itself, through which it is possible to reconstruct an evolutionary overview.
Thus, obtaining the frequency of this course depends on:
1- active participation in scheduled workshops;
2- achieving the objectives and intended outcomes in each proposed exercise;
3- delivery of a dossier compiling the investigation in terms of materials and processes, illustrated by the results obtained in the exercises;
4- participation in the group exhibition of the results of the course completed in the room, clean and tidy;

Calculation formula of final grade

1. the result of each completed exercise are analysed, criticized and classified into three sections:
- Translation / representation of the model [corresponding to 33% of each exercise classification];
- Modelling and language [corresponding to 33% of each year classification];
- Mould and reproduction [corresponding to 33% of the classification of each year];
2. Proposed set of exercise is 60% of the final mark of the year;
3. The dossier of research, register working path file corresponding to 20% of the final classification of the year;
4. Diligent participation in the sessions is 20% of the final mark of the year;

Examinations or Special Assignments

not applicable

Internship work/project

not applicable

Special assessment (TE, DA, ...)

not applicable

Classification improvement

Under frequency of UC the following year.


In the first days of confinement, students were contacted via email, with the suggestion of a work proposal, which would allow them to continue investigating the subjects related to the Curricular Unit, developed with the perspective of home-produced. With modelling means that each one could gather, starting from general information exposed in artistic anatomies and other sources of information, namely, digital, to represent the entire human body. In addition to specific information, students were informed that:

  • A specific result, other than the individual study, as systematic as possible, of the general osteology and myology of the Human body would not be expected, which would be something that they would feel the need to do in the course of practical research in the UC of M&M;
  • This study will provide the student, with a greater knowledge of the theme that the UC of M&M works on - representation of a human figure based on a model real, without other dependencies, only with distance teaching accompaniment and the literature provided on the UC Page, at Sigarra;
  • To associate a three-dimensional production, according to “… the modeling means that each one can gather…”, it is due to the awareness that, for the three-dimensional representation of information on osteology and general myology of the Human body, it will not be enough to conceptualize it, it will be necessary to put it in space;
  • This exercise could not be mandatory, since all restrictions that would not allow it to be carried out are perfectly understood, neither in comfort nor, perhaps, even in property;

For the length of the confinement, for the fulfilment of the proposal, by a group of students, in view of the need to finish the academic year, according to the existing conditions, the students enrolled in the UC, were consulted regarding the possibility of fulfilling this, outside the classroom teaching and established in Sigarra
After analysing and discussing the situation, with the students participating in the meetings via ZOOM, promoted synchronously with the UC schedule, the following was agreed:

1º - the Curricular Unit of Modelling and Moulding will be fulfilled, under conditions of distance and digital communication, in the interest of all, with a new operating process, timetable and assessment items being agreed;

2º- the students carry out the referred proposal, according to the conditions they can meet at their homes, and will report the results in a specific document, being accompanied weekly by the teacher, either in synchronous class sessions, through ZOOM meetings, or by email and others available means of communication;

3º - The UC will last until July 15th, closing date and delivery of Evaluation, with the 1st of July scheduled for the delivery of reports and the 8th of July for Self-assessment and discussion of classification. The last two weeks of July were reserved for the possibility of scheduling a modelling workshop with live model, without interfering in the classifications of students enrolled in the Modelling and Moulding UC;

4th - The Evaluation Items of the Modelling and Moulding UC and its corresponding percentage for the classification of students, will be: classroom work AC [30%]; EàD proposal [40%]; Report [30%];
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